XRF (X-ray fluorescence) is a non-destructive analytical technique used to determine the elemental composition of materials. XRF analyzers determine the chemistry of a sample by measuring the fluorescent (or secondary) X-ray emitted from a sample when it is excited by a primary X-ray source. Each of the elements present in a sample produces a set of characteristic fluorescent X-rays (“a fingerprint”) that is unique for that specific element, which is why XRF spectroscopy is an excellent technology for qualitative and quantitative analysis of material composition.

The X-ray fluorescence process

  1. A solid or a liquid sample is irradiated with high energy X-rays from a controlled X-ray tube.
  2. When an atom in the sample is struck with an X-ray of sufficient energy (greater than the atom’s K or L shell binding energy), an electron from one of the atom’s inner orbital shells is dislodged.
  3. The atom regains stability, filling the vacancy left in the inner orbital shell with an electron from one of the atom’s higher energy orbital shells.
  4. The electron drops to the lower energy state by releasing a fluorescent X-ray. The energy of this X-ray is equal to the specific difference in energy between two quantum states of the electron. The measurement of this energy is the basis of XRF analysis.

Interpretation of XRF spectra

Most atoms have several electron orbitals (K shell, L shell, M shell, for example). When x-ray energy causes electrons to transfer in and out of these shell levels, XRF peaks with varying intensities are created and will be present in the spectrum, a graphical representation of X-ray intensity peaks as a function of energy peaks. The peak energy identifies the element, and the peak height/intensity is generally indicative of its concentration.

Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

EDXRF is the technology commonly used in portable analyzers. EDXRF is designed to analyze groups of elements simultaneously in order to rapidly determine those elements present in the sample and their relative concentrations—in other words, the elemental chemistry of the sample.

To understand how this information can be used, consider scrap metal. Recyclers need to positively identify numerous alloy grades, rapidly analyze their chemical composition at material transfer points, and guarantee the quality of their product to their customers. Metal alloys are designed for specific functions that are not interchangeable; small variations in composition can result in significantly different mechanical properties. Luckily, handheld XRF analyzers can easily separate these grades.

X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Products

Niton XL3t 700

The Niton XL3t 700 hand-held XRF analyser is our feature leader instrument that provides near real-time data in the palm of your hand for the identification of toxic contaminants in a range of consumer goods including, toys, apparel, furniture and jewellery. Hazardous levels of Lead, Cadmium and Barium have been found in a variety of consumer … read more.

Niton XL3t 500

The Niton XL3t 500 hand-held XRF analyser for exploration and mining operations has a powerful 50KV tube, colour tilt screen and advanced NDT software for data recording and reporting the Niton XL3t 500 is the perfect in-field data collection tool. Fast, accurate and easy to use the Niton XL3t 500 can analyse a range of elements … read more.

Niton XL2t 700

The Niton XL2t 700 hand-held XRF analyser is the entry level analyser for the determination of toxic contaminants in toys, apparel, jewellery and furniture. Being able to quickly identify Lead, Cadmium, Barium and a range of other elements, will ensure that contaminated products do not reach the hands of consumers. The Niton XL2t 700 is an … read more.

Niton XL2t 600

The Niton XL2t 600 hand-held XRF analyser is our entry level analyser used primarily for lead contamination in soils and paint, remedial site works at mining facilities and point of export or in homes that are situated in high lead areas. The Niton XL2t 600 analyser is the ideal tool for determining lead levels in homes, schools, … read more.

Certified Standards

XRF analytical instruments require certified reference materials to establish a calibration curve ensuring the analysis of inorganic compositions of a substance or product to meet the expectations and quality assurances of institutions, companies and customers. PAS are the distributes of the Fluxana range of XRF standards for a variety of industrial applications: Metals as chips Metals as solids Aluminium … read more.

Sample Cups

Gaining the best results from your Niton hand-held XRF analyser can come down to correct sample preparation. PAS have a range of sample cups and films for the preparation of soils, powders and pulps ensuring the best possible results from your analysis. … read more.

Sample Prep Press

The Fluxana Sample Prep press is available in three models, the Vaneox - 25t manual Press, the Vaneox – 25t automatic press and the Vaneox – 40t automatic press. Fluxana also offer a number of tools to assist with the sample prep press process. Vaneox - 25t manual Max pressure 25t; pressure display 0-25t Piston 115mm; Stroke 30mm Bolster … read more.

Sample Prep Fusion

Fluxana Sample Prep Fusion technology is used to prepare samples to be analysed with an X-ray fluorescence machine. It is also used to improve precision over pressed powder technology. VULCAN MA Instruments - VULCAN 2MA, 4MA and 6MA Automatic version No manual adjustment of the flames Full microprocessor control Applications with variable temperature setting possible High flexibility for all types of applications Storage … read more.