XRF (X-ray fluorescence) is a non-destructive analytical technique used to determine the elemental composition of materials. XRF analyzers determine the chemistry of a sample by measuring the fluorescent (or secondary) X-ray emitted from a sample when it is excited by a primary X-ray source. Each of the elements present in a sample produces a set of characteristic fluorescent X-rays (“a fingerprint”) that is unique for that specific element, which is why XRF spectroscopy is an excellent technology for qualitative and quantitative analysis of material composition.

The X-ray fluorescence process

  1. A solid or a liquid sample is irradiated with high energy X-rays from a controlled X-ray tube.
  2. When an atom in the sample is struck with an X-ray of sufficient energy (greater than the atom’s K or L shell binding energy), an electron from one of the atom’s inner orbital shells is dislodged.
  3. The atom regains stability, filling the vacancy left in the inner orbital shell with an electron from one of the atom’s higher energy orbital shells.
  4. The electron drops to the lower energy state by releasing a fluorescent X-ray. The energy of this X-ray is equal to the specific difference in energy between two quantum states of the electron. The measurement of this energy is the basis of XRF analysis.

Interpretation of XRF spectra

Most atoms have several electron orbitals (K shell, L shell, M shell, for example). When x-ray energy causes electrons to transfer in and out of these shell levels, XRF peaks with varying intensities are created and will be present in the spectrum, a graphical representation of X-ray intensity peaks as a function of energy peaks. The peak energy identifies the element, and the peak height/intensity is generally indicative of its concentration.

Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

EDXRF is the technology commonly used in portable analyzers. EDXRF is designed to analyze groups of elements simultaneously in order to rapidly determine those elements present in the sample and their relative concentrations—in other words, the elemental chemistry of the sample.

To understand how this information can be used, consider scrap metal. Recyclers need to positively identify numerous alloy grades, rapidly analyze their chemical composition at material transfer points, and guarantee the quality of their product to their customers. Metal alloys are designed for specific functions that are not interchangeable; small variations in composition can result in significantly different mechanical properties. Luckily, handheld XRF analyzers can easily separate these grades.

X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Products

Niton XL3t 980 GOLDD+

The Niton XL3t 980 GOLDD+ hand-held XRF analyser is our ultimate performance and feature instrument used throughout the manufacturing, fabrication, engineering and scrap recycling industry to determine positive material identification. With the Niton XL3t 980 GOLDD+ you don’t have to risk your business or your reputation on the accuracy of supplier documentation or miss analyse … read more.

Niton DXL

PAS introduce the NEW Niton DXL Precious Metal Analyser. With an innovative colour touch-screen display and touch-screen keyboard, this instrument is specifically designed to provide fast and accurate analysis of 21 elements and the purity and chemistry of all precious metals. Its features include; an improved intuitive interface, CCD Camera, large sample chamber with a … read more.

Niton FXL 950/ 959 GOLDD+

Niton FXL 950 Now your commercial elemental analysis lab comes to you – a valuable resource you can carry on the back of a truck for in-field exploration, based at the core shed or mining operations. The Niton FXL 950 Series Field X-ray Lab delivers XRF-based elemental analysis with lab-quality testing performance. Housed in a compact, portable … read more.

Sample Prep Equipment

Direct Rock Sampler Intended for cutting rocks and stone, for the collection of fine powders from a rock face or core, the special diamond cutting blades easily generate a sample by cutting slots, or even making a line cut on the rock face or drill cores, so that the powder is then easily collected, ready to … read more.

Niton XL2t 800

The Niton XL2t 800 hand-held XRF analyser or “Niton Gun” as it is commonly known is our value leader instrument for metal alloy identification. With its bright yellow colour and rugged construction the XL2t 800 is the perfect tool for engineering companies, fabrication operations, production facilities and scrap recycling. Ruggedised for harsh industrial environments and a … read more.

Niton XL2t 500

The Niton XL2t 500 hand-held XRF analyser is the perfect choice for sorting ore, grade control and base metals exploration. Ruggedly constructed, easy to read screen, advanced electronics for data collection and reporting and excellent performance for Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Ti, V and Cr. With its bright yellow casing and renowned Niton point and shoot … read more.

Niton XL3t 600

The Niton XL3t 600 hand-held XRF analyser is our feature leader instrument that provides near real-time data in the palm of your hand for the identification and remediation of environmental contaminants on-site from soils and sediments to waste water, liquids and painted surfaces. With enhanced performance for Silver, Tin, Cadmium and Barium the Niton XL3t 600 … read more.

Niton XL2t 980 GOLDD

The Niton XL2t 980 GOLDD hand-held XRF analyser is the value performer for positive materials identification in the manufacturing, engineering, fabrication and scrap recycling sectors. Its rugged construction and bright colour make it perfect for these industries either on the production floor or in the scrap yard. The XL2t 980 GOLDD is our value performance leader … read more.

Niton XL2t 950 GOLDD

The Niton XL2t 950 GOLDD hand-held XRF analyser is our mid-tier performance leader for exploration, grade control or mine management. With an ergonomically designed shape, easy to read touch screen, daylight readable icons and bright yellow colour make it the perfect tool for rugged exploration or mine industry operations. Whether you are testing for base metals … read more.

Niton XL3t 800

The Niton XL3t 800 hand-held XRF analyser is our feature leader for the manufacturing, engineering, fabrication and scrap recycling sector offering a performance edge whilst priced to be competitive in the market. Whether you are checking in progress materials on the shop floor, sorting incoming scrap or carrying out routine maintenance in a petrochemical operation the … read more.

Niton XL3t 960 GOLDD+

The Niton XL3t 960 GOLDD+ hand-held XRF analyser is the ultimate performance tool for in-field collection and efficient analysis of thousands of samples in-situ. With an in-built active CCD camera and optional small spot feature you are able to precisely position, capture and record your data in seconds. The Niton XL3t 960 GOLDD+ is light weight, … read more.

Niton XL3t 970 GOLDD+

The Niton XL3t 970 GOLDD+ hand-held XRF analyser sets the standard in the identification of potential toxic chemicals in consumer products, apparel, furniture, toys and jewellery. Fast, accurate, non-destructive and easy to use the Niton hand-held XRF analyser ensures your compliance with statutory regulations and your own quality control procedures. Key benefits: Immediate sample results on site Totally … read more.