XRF (X-ray fluorescence) is a non-destructive analytical technique used to determine the elemental composition of materials. XRF analyzers determine the chemistry of a sample by measuring the fluorescent (or secondary) X-ray emitted from a sample when it is excited by a primary X-ray source. Each of the elements present in a sample produces a set of characteristic fluorescent X-rays (“a fingerprint”) that is unique for that specific element, which is why XRF spectroscopy is an excellent technology for qualitative and quantitative analysis of material composition.

The X-ray fluorescence process

  1. A solid or a liquid sample is irradiated with high energy X-rays from a controlled X-ray tube.
  2. When an atom in the sample is struck with an X-ray of sufficient energy (greater than the atom’s K or L shell binding energy), an electron from one of the atom’s inner orbital shells is dislodged.
  3. The atom regains stability, filling the vacancy left in the inner orbital shell with an electron from one of the atom’s higher energy orbital shells.
  4. The electron drops to the lower energy state by releasing a fluorescent X-ray. The energy of this X-ray is equal to the specific difference in energy between two quantum states of the electron. The measurement of this energy is the basis of XRF analysis.

Interpretation of XRF spectra

Most atoms have several electron orbitals (K shell, L shell, M shell, for example). When x-ray energy causes electrons to transfer in and out of these shell levels, XRF peaks with varying intensities are created and will be present in the spectrum, a graphical representation of X-ray intensity peaks as a function of energy peaks. The peak energy identifies the element, and the peak height/intensity is generally indicative of its concentration.

Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

EDXRF is the technology commonly used in portable analyzers. EDXRF is designed to analyze groups of elements simultaneously in order to rapidly determine those elements present in the sample and their relative concentrations—in other words, the elemental chemistry of the sample.

To understand how this information can be used, consider scrap metal. Recyclers need to positively identify numerous alloy grades, rapidly analyze their chemical composition at material transfer points, and guarantee the quality of their product to their customers. Metal alloys are designed for specific functions that are not interchangeable; small variations in composition can result in significantly different mechanical properties. Luckily, handheld XRF analyzers can easily separate these grades.

X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Products

Gold and Precious Metals Testing

The Niton XL2t 100 hand-held and Bench top Niton DXL XRF analyser commonly known as the “Niton gun” has been widely accepted by the precious metals market, with users as varied as government mints to one man operations. The high level of performance, easy operation and speed create a simple and affordable solution for your … read more.

Mining and Exploration

Mining and Exploration Portable Analytical Solutions (PAS) offer more than one analysis option for your mining and exploration projects; Chemical/ Elemental analysis is achieved using Thermo Fisher Scientific’s range of Niton hand-held x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysers, and Mineral analysis is achieved using ASD Inc.’s range of Near Infra-red (NIR) Spectrometers. Speak to our team of specialists … read more.


XRF and LIBS Technology - The best of both worlds at your finger tips   PAS are able to supply both the Niton XRF and Katana LIBs technologies, meaning you are able to source the best instrument for your applications. even though there is alloys that can be analysed on both instrument, there are clear differences that … read more.

VITRIOX Fusion Machine

The fusion technology is used to prepare samples to be analyzed with an X-ray fluorescence instrument. It is also used to improve precision over pressed powder technology. Electrical Fusion Machine:  Fully automatic cold to cold operation for 1, 2, 4 or 6 samples; 1 sample at a time  Highest precision (ISO 29581-2 "expert performance") for all kinds of … read more.

Fluxana Standard and Preparation

Fluxana deliver all types of accessories, such as cups, foils, chemicals and calibration standards, to the users of XRF. Additionally we offer a wide range of sample preparation equipment including fusion equipment, mills and presses.           Standards XRF analytical instruments require certified reference materials to establish a calibration curve ensuring the analysis of inorganic compositions of a substance … read more.

Niton XRF

Get lab-quality results with user-friendly portable  analyzers — anywhere, anytime, under any condition.   Precious Metals     Scrap    PMI     NDT Exploration     Mining     Environmental RoHS     Waste Sorting     Hazmat   Thermo Scientific™ portable analytical instruments deliver instant, actionable data for quick decision making in critical situations. Combining sophisticated technologies and an incredibly easy-to-use interface, our portable analyzers provide rapid, reliable chemical identification … read more.

Niton Service

At PAS ensuring your analyser stays in peak operating condition is our priority, our technical team at PAS are factory trained and constantly updating their knowledge base to ensure they provide customers with leading edge expertise when necessary. Providing: Quick and efficient local repairs Extensive spare parts inventory, stocked locally Full technical support Full calibration services Rapid turnaround on service enquiries … read more.

Niton XL2100G General Metal Analyzer

Get immediate, nondestructive elemental analysis of alloy materials from titanium to nickel with the Thermo Scientific™ Niton™ XL2100G General Metal Analyzer. The XL2100G analyzer is a practical, cost-effective solution that offers fast analysis for general alloy identification, basic fabrication, and scrap metal sorting. This high value, high performance analyzer features advanced electronics  yet it is … read more.

Niton XL5

Put the Future of Fast, Accurate, Expanded Alloy ID in Your Hands Powerful alloy verification  is within your reach with the new Thermo Scientific™ Niton™ XL5 Analyzer. This lightweight, ergonomically designed handheld X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzer offers a new level of speed, accuracy and productivity to metal recyclers, fabricators and PMI inspectors. The XL5 analyzer’s compact design … read more.

Niton XL2 100

Buying or Selling Gold? The Niton XL2 100 hand-held XRF analyser, known as the Niton “Gun”, has been specifically designed for testing a range of precious metals. Fast, accurate, totally non-destructive testing is easy with the Niton XL2 100. The analyser can be used as a hand-held device for large objects or placed into the test … read more.

Niton XL3t 950 GOLDD+

Now with intergrated GPS The Niton XL3t 950 GOLDD+ with Intergrated GPS hand-held XRF analyser enables fast acquisition of data for rapid delineation of ore boundaries and in-depth, quantitative geochemical analysis of metal concentrations for mine mapping, drilling programs and grade control, critically important for the efficient running of mining operations. In all stages of the geochemical and mineral … read more.

Instrument Rentals

PAS offer the opportunity to rent reliable, fully serviced Niton XRF Analysers for short or long term periods for Mining, Environmental and Alloy sectors. Perhaps you would like to trial an instrument for a new application? Or you are an existing customer that requires a second unit for a short time? Here at PAS we offer … read more.